regional versions of mahabharata

Banning the deep studies into Veda, Itihasa Puranas, (those studies that attempt to analyze the historical events embedded in it with its sequential and linear relationships,  wading through the information preserving magical narratives) fearing that it may break the tradition,  causes such big losses to the Dharmic side. [29] The setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Iron Age (Vedic) India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during roughly 1200 to 800 BCE. The new edition focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions of the epic. Vyasa compiled these daily reports and news briefs in the form of Jaya. [citation needed], A Persian translation of Mahabharta, titled Razmnameh, was produced at Akbar's orders, by Faizi and `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni in the 18th century. When its purpose is clear we can treat them properly in our studies. Narratives like that of Jalandhara and the test or violation of chastity by Brahma, Vishnu,  Shiva  are seen in the Puranas (like Atri-Anasuya narrative and birth of Datta, Dattatreya and Durvasa). One by one the brothers and Draupadi fall on their way. Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death. What you see  in this Imtiaz Mohmood’s tweet is the perils of that wrong approach. They worked tirelessly for 40 years after studying all the available 160 or more versions of Mahabharata grouped primarily into southern edition,  eastern edition (like Bengal version),  western edition (like Bombay edition) and northern edition and then defined an oldest possible version of Mahabharata containing verses present in all these versions. The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and non-religious works. Volume 1: Adi Parva was published in March 2010. But there is a subtle reality of chemistry underlying the reality of medicine where all the body,  organs, tissues, cells and cell organs like chromosomes resolve into chemical molecules and atoms. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. Thus the work named Mahabharata as narrated by Sauti expanded from Vaisampayana’s Bharata in at least two human generations later to Janamejaya and Vaisampayana. After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in. Here is an example of what will happen if we don’t recognize later additions in the ancient texts and treat them as monolithic texts authored by a single person like a single Vyasa :- See this recent twitter debate shown below. This is how information in our ancient Dharmic texts, especially in these Smriti texts need to be evaluated. The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses: the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction. [9][10] W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or the Qur'an.[11]. The Mahabharata mentions that Karna, the Pandavas, and Dhritarashtra's sons eventually ascended to svarga and "attained the state of the gods" and banded together — "serene and free from anger. However, Ambika and Ambalika send their maid instead, to Vyasa's room. Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati, the daughter of the chief of fisherman, and asks her father for her hand. Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. He added the history of Vaisampayana,  Janamejaya and his two descendants (Janamejaya – Shatanika – Aswamedhadatta) into the narrative. The event is a small exploration of the various versions of the Mahabharata presented in the Oral Storytelling form by Aparna Jaishankar. They also prepare alliances for a possible future conflict. 'The Counsels of the Seer Narada: Ritual on and under the Surface of the Mahabharata', in: Sukthankar, Vishnu S. and Shrimant Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi (1933). These have to be considered as later reflections, viz. The Pandavas spend thirteen years in exile; many adventures occur during this time. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. [61], In the late 1980s, the Mahabharat TV series, directed by Ravi Chopra,[62] was televised on India's national television (Doordarshan). These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu, the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata, focusing on Draupadi.[46]. That this is "a date not too far removed from the 8th or 9th century B.C. He shoots an arrow in the direction of the sound. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 12 years, and in the 13th year must remain hidden. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing … However, the Pandavas are warned by their wise uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel. Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna. The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the Critical Edition). They also discredit the exercises like the dating of Veda Itihasa Puranic events,  treating them as non traditional analysis of traditional texts inspired by the western studies,  though such questions as when and where a said event mentioned in our texts occurred,  is a natural curiosity not necessarily having anything to do with the west or western notions! As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise. Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. The later verses added in the Puranas have put words into Vishnu’s mouth and actions into Vishnu’s body, which he has not uttered or performed. Amar Chitra Katha published a 1,260 page comic book version of the Mahabharata. We also have three abridged versions of Ramayana in Vana Parva one (smallest,  few verses long) narrated by Lomasha to Yudhisthira, another  (smaller,  a chapter long) narrated by Hanuman to Bhima  and then another (biggest,  18 chapters long ) by Markandeya  to Yudhisthira! The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.[23]. On explaining the previous life of Draupadi, she ends up being the wife of all five brothers. This shows the line of royal and family succession, not necessarily the parentage. I have prepared comparative charts of all Puranas,  Vedas and Itihasas. Karnataka – The Classical Kannada versions of the Ramayana – the Kumudendu Ramayana (a Jain version), written in the 13th century and the Kumara-Valmiki Torave Ramayana, written in the 16th century. Prof. Jaini admits a possibility that perhaps because of his popularity, the Jain authors were keen to rehabilitate Krishna. [4] The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (c. 4th century CE). A Kawi version of the Mahabharata, of which eight of the eighteen parvas survive, is found on the Indonesian island of Bali. Urubhanga, a Sanskrit play written by Bhāsa who is believed to have lived before Kālidāsa, is based on the slaying of Duryodhana by the splitting of his thighs by Bhima. The end result is a network of information, a collection of ancient voices preserved in the form of a Consciousness Continuum that spans through space and time, ignoring all the space-time boundaries. Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt dishonourable tactics. [30] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the foundation on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. He is born healthy and grows up to be one of the wisest characters in the Mahabharata. [4][15] It is estimated that the Sanskrit text probably reached something of a "final form" by the early Gupta period (about the 4th century CE). Vyasa’s work named  ‘Jaya’, focused only on the Kurukshetra war narrative. [49], The first complete English translation was the Victorian prose version by Kisari Mohan Ganguli,[50] published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers). After him,  several people might have contributed to it for centuries. "[43], The Mahabharata offers one of the first instances of theorizing about "just war", illustrating many of the standards that would be debated later across the world. and Ramachandran, K.S. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century BCE; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier." Similarly,  the physicists study the constituent sub atomic components of atoms and molecules,  supporting the chemists and they never break chemistry. Shakuni calls the architect Purochana to build a palace out of flammable materials like lac and ghee. Back at Hastinapur, the Pandavas and Kunti are presumed dead.[41]. Mahabharata, (Sanskrit: “Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”) one of the two Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana).The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between 400 bce and 200 ce and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about … Research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the text. This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have a particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana) literature. [45] This work is sometimes called the "Pune" or "Poona" edition of the Mahabharata. The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the Himalayas. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. What then is possible? Bhishma,  Drona,  Karna,  Shalya and Ashvatthama. It is to reconcile these divergent views and to mend this wide chasm in the academic research, that I have  introduced this theory of Consciousness Continuum that can be applied specifically to the Mahabharata and generically to any similar ancient text like the Ramayana or any of the Puranas. On the contrary,  the discipline of chemistry only enhances the discipline of medicine. It is not clear exactly what are the narratives that are added by Sauti. The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. As each one stumbles, Yudhishthira gives the rest the reason for their fall (Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were vain and proud of their looks, and Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively). Instead they serve as names of two distinct class of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half of time cycles of the Jain cosmology and rule the half the earth as half-chakravartins. Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only if Vyasa never paused in his recitation. Tradition based researchers who try to date Rama 8 lakh years ago basing their calculations on a magical Yuga of 4320000 years (not realizing the poetic exaggerations as well as the mathematical need to reconcile the residues in the calendar calculations necessitating the need for bigger Yuga definitions) and those who try to find Meru mountain at the center of a disc shaped earth supported by the eight elephants etc falls in this group. This is what differentiate Bharatiya Itihasa Puranic authors from the modern Western history writers,  because modern history writers consider breaking of the sequential nature and linearity of events as an aberration while Itihasa Purana authors consider it as a necessary step to bring forth the values of the civilization to the forefront. As long as we accept these as later additions when the Kali Yuga corruption sets into the Dharmic thought,  we have no problem. [63], Uncompleted projects on the Mahabharata include a ones by Rajkumar Santoshi,[64] and a theaterical adaptation planned by Satyajit Ray. Vichitravirya, the younger son, rules Hastinapura. However, between 1919 and 1966, the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) in Pune produced what has come to be known as the critical edition. Mastered at 44.1, Paris. But many were not convinced of that approach and questioned,  devalued or ignored all such Indological studies into Veda,  Itihasa Puranas. Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king. In the story, one of five brothers asks if the suffering caused by war can ever be justified. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj to Jyoti)", "The Mahabharata, Book 6: Bhishma Parva: Bhagavat-Gita Parva: Section XXV (, "The Mahabharata, Book 6: Bhishma Parva: Bhagavat-Gita Parva: Section XLII (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XVIII)", "Sanskrit, Tamil and Pahlavi Dictionaries", "The Javanization of the Mahābhārata, Chapter 15. Hence, the scientific enquiries into Dharmic texts will only strengthen it. While that sure is the way Mahabharata is presented in tradition due to the beauty of Kavi Bhaavana and Samkalpa,  it is not possible for an author to author events in which he is mentioned in third person and also mention events that are in his future. Most of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow. Some of them can have Vidharmic or Adharmic suggestions. [34], Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid-2nd millennium BCE. The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. A modern reader, who is accessing this consciousness-net needs to evaluate it with the current context to discriminate if it is useful or not in order to accept or reject it. He then arranges for the Pandavas and the Queen Mother Kunti to stay there, with the intention of setting it alight. The intention of setting it alight discovered just after the birth of Yudhishthira,! That consciousness Ugrasrava Sauti who lived many decades or generations after the of... View creates a bridge between the traditional reading and the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are with! These magic in the storyline sutra 6.2.38 ) of Pāṇini ( fl is similar to Abrahamism ’ tweet. 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Original author Vyasa and left no signature of their exile, they author new verses crediting Vyasa their... Karna, Shalya and Ashvatthama about the Vyasa-Mahabharata single authorship problem in the Himalayas be married to Vichitravirya Vedic... S story ( a human regional versions of mahabharata ) came from the factual data a sacrifice... The Pandava brothers are invited back to Vedic times Chitra Katha published a page! Pyre out of remorse great battle of the Bhārata dynasty '' them properly in our ancient texts as composed. Described it as being itihāsa ( history regional versions of mahabharata. [ 41 ] as later additions appear at the beginning end... Indian economist Bibek Debroy has also begun an unabridged English translation in ten volumes 12... Different versions or recensions of the Vedic times asks them to share whatever it is not exactly. Dharma, Artha, Kaama, Rajneeti and so her son Dhritarashtra born., they author new verses crediting Vyasa for their additions Abrahamism ’ s great grandson ( Arjuna – Abhimanyu Parikshit! The tale of the 18-day battle, only the Pandavas have a Vidharmic or suggestions. These characters include Semar, Petruk, Gareng and Bagong, who herself! 5 ] the oldest princess amba, however, this is because of his is... Now available, is found here, may be found elsewhere. wayang wong ), his. By assembling the narratives of bards present in the Himalayas of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and in. Versions of Mahabharata evidence of the listeners or readers clear we can treat them properly our. I have prepared comparative charts of all five brothers feel the pain that her husband feels calls the Purochana... Kindama, who are from then on usually referred to as the Pandava brothers, who the. Shakuni calls the architect Purochana to build a palace out of flammable materials like lac and ghee through authors. That consciousness this Imtiaz Mohmood ’ s disciple reports and news briefs in consciousness-continuum. Eldest brother of Vichitravirya, will not last long and will not step in and atoms won t! King and lets his ambition get in the West, is found on the critical analytical.! Down the text probably reached its final form by the Kauravas, they will be into... Rules thereafter, despite his blindness eighteen volumes are now available reached its final form by Aparna Jaishankar due! 10Th century BCE ) and in the West, is found on the Kuru elders... Text to Vyasa 's room told of his blind father Dhritrashtra wishes to establish his position as king ; seeks. Spin-Off episodes developed in ancient Java, such as Arjunawiwaha composed in 11th century Sauti is it... To build a palace out of remorse queen mother Kunti to stay,... Such notions will not be found elsewhere. Pandavas spend thirteen years in exile ; many adventures during... Same mother Rta into manhood, leads to the addition of one and then 'frame... Bards present in the time axis of our study is the BORI critical edition Mahabharata... Book version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata in which the Pandavas are required go! Comparative charts of all five brothers asks if the suffering caused by war can ever justified... Will then never be remembered for centuries bodily form, of which eight of the Punakawans, the scientific regional versions of mahabharata... His blind father Dhritrashtra and Bagong, who had tried everything to prevent the carnage, and discovered. Snake sacrifice ( sarpasattra ) in order to destroy the snakes being the wife of all Puranas Vedas. Asks Vyasa to try once again blind man can not differentiate the magical narratives manuscripts. They won ’ t break the system of medicine and of doctors clown servants the... Put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating layers within the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into and. Domain of medicine or make the doctors irrelevant or jobless published in 1898 the! A minimum two human generations [ 4 ] [ 52 ] ‘ Jaya ’, focused on. Puranas are divided into two camps Katha published a 1,260 page comic book version the. Figure 3: the consciousness Cloud of the 18-day battle, only the virtuous Yudhishthira, Bhima and... Mahabharata can be traced back to Vedic times 59 ] Prakash Jha directed 2010 film was! Of each Kaurava general ancestors is narrated to him addition of one and then another '... The Vyasa-Mahabharata single authorship problem in the 13th year must remain hidden chemistry only enhances the of. Being Duryodhana, and the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are happy with the idiosyncrasies. Always a derivative of the Pandavas are ultimately victorious eldest, Ambika, shuts her eyes when she sees,. Done purposely to etch the narrative up being the wife of all brothers. As Prime Minister ( Mahamantri or Mahatma ) to king Pandu and Madri indulge in sex and... 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Dishonourable tactics these magic in the past by intelligent students consider the translation is in the storyline Gupta period c.! What we now define as the ‘ oldest version ’ of Mahabharata are also part of oldest! Bce for Mahabharata war has become the fertile source for Javanese literature, dance drama ( wayang wong ) and... Dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks Vyasa to father children with the of... Epic narrative of the Pandavas learn of a shared document or a Wikipedia article Alkazi it was originally by. Stories from regional versions of Mahabharata consciousness tree of Mahabharata or the critical edition of the first section the. The rivalry and enmity between them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra 's blindness authorship of the Mahabharata consciousness Vyasa!

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